Inflation is the general increase in prices of goods and services across the economy over time, leading to a decrease in the purchasing power of individuals and businesses. Essentially, the money you have today will buy you fewer goods and services compared to the past. To grasp the impact of inflation, consider a commonly purchased item and compare its price across different time periods. For instance, in 1970, an average cup of coffee was priced at 25 cents. Fast forward to 2019, and it had risen to $1.59. This means that with $5, you could purchase around three cups of coffee in 2019, whereas in 1970, the same amount would have bought you approximately twenty cups.


Table of Content

  • What Exactly Inflation is?
  • How Inflation is Measured?
  • What are the main causes of inflation?
  • How to Protect against It?


What Exactly Inflation is?


Inflation refers to the gradual weakening of purchasing power, noticeable through the widespread increase in prices of goods and services. While its primary impact is on consumers, businesses are not immune to its effects. Here's a succinct breakdown of how it influences both consumers and companies:


Consumers witness a reduction in purchasing power as the prices of essential items like food, utilities, and fuel go up.


Companies confront a decrease in purchasing power and face the potential of narrower profit margins when the expenses of inputs used in production, such as raw materials like coal and crude oil, intermediate products like flour and steel, and finished machinery, rise. Consequently, companies often adjust prices for their products or services to offset it, ultimately passing these cost increases on to consumers.


How Inflation is Measured?


Inflation is assessed by statistical agencies through a process that involves establishing the current value of a "basket" comprising various goods and services commonly consumed by households. This collection is referred to as a price index. To determine the rate, or the percentage change in prices over time, agencies compare the value of the index in one period to another. This comparison can be done on a monthly basis for a monthly rate of it, or on a yearly basis for an annual rate of inflation.


What are the main causes of inflation?

Demand-pull inflation occurs when the demand for goods and services in the economy surpasses the economy's capacity to produce them. For instance, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the rebound in demand for new cars outpaced expectations. However, a shortage in semiconductor supply hindered the automotive industry's ability to meet this increased demand. This resulted in a scarcity of new vehicles, leading to a surge in prices for both new and used cars.


Cost-push inflation occurs when the escalating prices of input goods and services increase the prices of final goods and services. For example, commodity prices experienced a sharp spike during the pandemic due to significant shifts in demand, changes in buying patterns, alterations in the cost of service, and shifts in perceived value across various sectors and value chains. To counteract it and mitigate the impact on financial performance, industrial companies found themselves compelled to contemplate price hikes that would ultimately be passed on to their end consumers.


How to Protect against It?

In general, it is detrimental, harming both consumers and businesses. However, there are a few techniques to guard against it:


Secure Low Fixed Interest Rates: Opt for a 30-year mortgage with a low fixed interest rate to shield against inflation. Consider borrowing when interest rates are low and explore refinancing when rates drop.


Invest in Stocks: In a high-inflation environment, stocks typically outperform bonds. Many companies pass on increased costs to consumers, safeguarding profits. Companies dealing in commodities or essential goods are often reliable choices. Conversely, bond prices tend to decrease as interest rates and inflation's rise.


Purchase Inflation-Protected Securities: Certain financial products, like Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (TIPS), adjust in value to counteract inflation, often linked to changes in CPI. Some permanent life insurance products and annuities may offer inflation-adjustment options, typically in the form of a Cost of cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) rider.


Save at High-Interest Rates: Place savings in money market accounts or CDs with favorable yields during periods of high interest rates. It's important to note that if the yield is lower than the inflation rate, you may still experience a loss in buying power.


Acquire an Inflation Hedge: Assets such as gold and real estate are considered effective hedges against inflation, appreciating in value alongside general price increases.


Own Rental Real Estate: Landlords often have the ability to increase rent to keep up with inflation. If you own income-generating property with a fixed-rate mortgage, this can significantly bolster your overall financial situation.



Understanding inflation is crucial for making informed financial decisions in an ever-changing economic landscape. It is the steady erosion of purchasing power, impacting both individuals and businesses alike. Recognizing its causes, effects, and protective measures empowers us to navigate through periods of it with confidence. From locking in low fixed interest rates to considering investments in stocks and inflation-protected securities, there are various strategies to safeguard against its effects. Moreover, assets like gold and real estate serve as valuable hedges. By staying informed and implementing prudent financial strategies, we can effectively shield ourselves from the adverse impacts of it and secure a more stable and prosperous financial future. You can Download ready to use PPT on the same for hassle free work, visit can download your editable PPT now!



What is the difference between inflation and hyperinflation?

It is a general increase in prices, typically at a moderate rate. Hyperinflation, on the other hand, is an extreme form of inflation characterized by rapid and out-of-control price increases, often exceeding hundreds or thousands of percent per year.


How does inflation impact investments?

It erodes the value of fixed-income investments like bonds. However, it can benefit investments like stocks and real estate, which may appreciate in value in response to rising prices.


What are the effects of inflation on businesses?

It can increase the cost of production, leading to reduced profit margins for businesses. It may also lead to uncertainty in planning and investment decisions.


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