All About PowerPoint, Presentations & Life
PowerPoint Templates save a lot of time and effort in creating presentations. When stakes are high, you cannot afford to put your reputation on the line by creating amateur slides. Professionally designed PowerPoint templates, diagrams and PPT designs take care of all nitty gritty of design such as alignment, symmetry, justification of text, professional fonts, and much more.
Visual PowerPoint template designs also add a creative visual touch to textual slides. Research has proved that chunk of text or even bullet point slides are hardly effective in engaging audience. On the other hand, visual slides attract the audience, engage them and are remembered long after presentation is over. No wonder, presenters prefer to go for a professional PPT template instead of toiling day and night in front of their computer. Here are the 100 most demanded PowerPoint templates in the presentation industry:
- Agenda PowerPoint Templates
Yes, agenda PowerPoint template is the most used template by presenters. After all, it is a part of every presentation, be it an internal meeting or a conference presentation. It summarizes the key discussion points of the presentation.
- Strategy PowerPoint Templates
Outline your business strategy for the next 3 or 5 years. What are the goals you wish to achieve? What initiatives will you take? How will measure the success of those initiatives? A business strategy template helps you visualize your plan for growth.
- Timeline PowerPoint Templates
Whether presenters want to showcase the company’s timeline of main events from starting to present or describe a project timeline or a process timeline, a Timeline PowerPoint template is required every now and then. A linear process timeline template, a vertical timeline or a circular timeline are the favorites of presenters for showing a timeline of events.
- Roadmap PowerPoint Templates
Similar to timeline templates, roadmap PowerPoint templates are often needed to show the steps or milestones to reach a destination or goal. Roadmap PPT designs comprises a winding road with signboards or location pins as well as roadmap in form of a gantt chart to show sales roadmap, marketing roadmap, product roadmaps, project roadmaps, and so on.
- Company Introduction PowerPoint Templates
Another prerequisite for business presentations is the company introduction slide. You have to describe what services you offer, which industry you belong to, any achievements to your credit, your experience in the industry, and so on. A company introduction PowerPoint template helps you present all this information in a visually attractive way.
- Self-Introduction PowerPoint Templates
Whether it’s a training session, a presentation by thought leader at a conference or workshop, or a candidate creating his visual resume presentation, about me slide or a self-introduction template becomes necessary to create a good impression.
- Our Team PowerPoint Templates
Introduce your core team members so that the audience can see the faces of your organization. Team Introduction PowerPoint template helps you create a neat visual pinboard with team members mugshot, designation, brief description, and social media handles. Team template is a must for pitch deck presentations so that investors and venture capitalists can see the calibre of the team and their work experience and creative talents.
- Mission & Vision PowerPoint Templates
A company introduction presentation, Kaizen presentation, annual report presentation…infact most of the corporate presentations require a mission and vision slide. Mission focuses on what your company wants to achieve in the present and vision on the future. Presenting your mission statement and vision has to be visually impressive; so make use of a professional mission vision PowerPoint template.
- Values PowerPoint Templates
Throw light on values and principles that guide your organization and customer service. You need to reassure the internal and external audience that you won’t lose sight of the values of excellence, integrity, trust and other values in running day to day operations and while serving customers.
- Goals/Objectives PowerPoint Templates
Be it a quarterly business review presentation or quarterly sales, company introduction or annual report, goals and objectives slide is a must include. The goals should be SMART – specific, measurable, attainable and action-oriented, relevant, and time-bound. Having a professional goals PPT template helps you articulate your goals and objectives in a convincing way.
- Organization Chart PowerPoint Templates
A commonly used presentation template is that of organization chart to show the hierarchy and internal structure of an organization. It helps the new employees as well as outsiders understand who is responsible for what and how information flows within the organization. An organization chart template helps you create a neat chart and saves you time and struggle in creating boxes and arrows.
- Flowchart PowerPoint Templates
A Flowchart helps presenters describe a workflow or a process visually. Creating boxes and connecting them with arrows can be a time-consuming task. Flowchart templates make the task easier for presenters and help them focus on their content rather than design.
- Pie Chart PowerPoint Templates
Since all pie chart templates are excel linked, all pie chart templates can be easily edited by presenters to show survey results or product-wise sales, basically any numerical proportion. Pie charts are better for showing percentages than tables as it is easier to comprehend the difference visually. Pie charts are best when the categories are 6 or fewer and there is some difference between the values of each category. The bigger the difference, the better.
- Doughnut Chart PowerPoint Templates
Doughnut charts are pie charts with a hole in the centre that can be used to display information. Here, the focus is more on the length of the arcs rather than numerical proportion.
- Gantt Chart PowerPoint Templates
Gantt Charts are horizontal bar charts with tasks plotted on Y axis and the time frame (days, months or quarters) displayed on X axis. Commonly used in project management, Gantt Charts help project managers and team visualize the tasks involved in a project and the time frame required to complete them. It can also be used to track the progress of different tasks. Gantt Chart PPT templates are editable so that you can change the task names, duration and length of the bars as per your requirement.
- Bar Chart PowerPoint Templates
Many confuse between a bar chart and a column chart. A bar chart is a horizontal chart with values displayed horizontally and categories vertically. A column chart is, on the other hand, a vertical chart with values displayed in vertical columns. Both bar chart templates and column chart PowerPoint templates are editable and excel linked.
- Column Chart PowerPoint Templates
Column charts are the most used charts in presentations. Like bar charts, column charts can be stacked or clustered charts. Sales presentations use column chart templates the most.
- Line Chart PowerPoint Templates
Popularly demanded by sales professionals and researchers to show trends over time is the line chart or graph that shows the fluctuation in data over a period. The up and down lines show the rise and fall of trends. Line chart templates are best when you have multiple data series, for instance, the sales of product A, B, C over the last 10 years. All line chart templates are data driven.
- Arrow PowerPoint Templates
Arrow diagrams are very commonly used to visualize a process. Arrows indicate direction and are universally used to guide people. Employing this common symbol to visualize processes and steps makes it easier for the audience to understand.
- Circular PowerPoint Templates
Many processes are a cycle of steps or events, for instance, product lifecycle. Circular PowerPoint templates are used to show such continuous, never-ending processes.
- Products & Services PowerPoint Templates
Highlight your company’s offerings with products and services slide. Make people aware about your product line and diverse offerings and how they can benefit from them.
- Highlights PowerPoint Templates
Summarize the key highlights of an event or your company. Bullet points kill the impact of highlights. Use a professional highlights template to draw audience attention to each key finding or project highlight.
- KPI Dashboards PowerPoint Templates
Marketing, sales and HR professionals often include KPI dashboards in their presentations to inform executives about key performance indicators relevant to their field. It helps the top management assess the performance of each team and business overall. Sales dashboard template, marketing dashboard template, and business KPI dashboards are always in great demand.
- Funnel PowerPoint Templates
A funnel diagram is very often used by marketing professionals to describe lead generation or the journey a customer takes while making a purchase. It is commonly known as marketing funnel, purchase funnel and lead generation funnel. It comprises of stages that keep narrowing down as we move down the funnel. AIDA (attention, interest, desire and action) model in advertising and persuasion is most commonly represented with a funnel template.
- Puzzle PowerPoint Templates
Show the dependencies of different parts to a whole using the puzzle diagram. Show how all pieces fit together. Decision making, creativity, teamwork, and many more concepts can be depicted visually using puzzle PowerPoint template.
- Pyramid PowerPoint Templates
Heard of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs? It is most commonly represented through a pyramid diagram. Divided into a hierarchy, the lowest layer of the pyramid occupies the maximum area signifying the largest population, and as one goes higher, the area and the numbers go down. The highest level of pyramid signifies the destination or last stage of any process. Pyramid templates are a great visual metaphor to describe stages or steps.
- Steps PowerPoint Templates
Every corporate presentation or training session has a steps slide describing the method step by step. Make it easier for the audience to remember the steps by giving it a visual treatment. Use a steps PowerPoint template to make the task easier.
- SWOT Analysis PowerPoint Templates
Describe the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to your business using the SWOT Analysis PowerPoint template. A performance review and competitive analysis presentation require the use of a SWOT slide to get an unbiased perspective on one’s strengths and weaknesses and leverage that to create a better business strategy.
- Infographic Slide PowerPoint Templates
Infographics are information plus graphics – a design trend to showcase text and data in a visual style. While data is represented with charts, graphs and other visual tools, text is also given a visual treatment in an infographic slide.
- Gears PowerPoint Templates
Operational planning presentations definitely use a gears diagram to show the operations. Gears are the perfect visual representation for interconnected processes and teamwork. Failing of one gear fails the entire machinery. Gears template can be used to show interrelated stages, processes and operations.
- Growth PowerPoint Templates
Growth template helps you present steps to business growth and share your ideas and strategies for the same convincingly. A visual slide reinforces the concept of growth than just plain text.
- Career Path PowerPoint Templates
Guide job seekers about the career path of the field they are interested in so they can make a wise decision. HR professionals can show career path to the company employees to motivate them to work hard to climb the ladder of success. Set goals and motivate workforce for advancement in career with a career path template.
- Harvey Balls PowerPoint Templates
Harvey Balls are round ideograms used to show qualitative information such as quality and effectiveness. They are small pie charts that make it easy to compare competitors on certain parameters which are qualitative in nature. Harvey Ball templates are very commonly used in the consulting industry.
- Teamwork PowerPoint Templates
Reinforce the concept of teamwork visually with a teamwork diagram. There are various ways to show teamwork visually such as joining jigsaw puzzle, interconnected gears and so on.
- Challenges PowerPoint Templates
List out business challenges with a suitable visual layout. A challenges template helps you add more weight to the challenges and force the audience such as management to take these challenges seriously.
- Problems and Solution PowerPoint Templates
Identify the problems and propose solutions for the same with problem solution template. The problems and their solutions present an opportunity to maximize throughput, increase productivity and wellbeing. Make the problem and its solution stand out with a visually impressive and easily understandable PPT layout.
- Communication PowerPoint Templates
Throw light on the importance of two-way communication and help workers improve their communication skills with communication template. Ineffective channels of communication can derail the entire progress. Describe the formal and informal channels of communication and communication strategies for better rapport with customers and among your employees.
- World Map PowerPoint Templates
World map is commonly seen in most presentations. Whether you want to point your location or headquarters, show your global presence with offices around the world, or describe sales by region, an editable world map template comes quite handy.
- US Map PowerPoint Templates
Highlight state survey results, poll results and performance across each state in the US with United States of America editable map. Easily color the states or highlight the most remarkable numbers in some states with a map template.
- Tables PowerPoint Templates
Financial presentations are incomplete without tables. Whether you want to show budget vs actual slide, income and expense comparison or profit and loss, tables help you put down numbers in a format that is understood by all. Creating tables can become a messy affair. PowerPoint tables handle the rows-columns headache by giving you a ready-made table to fill in. Table templates are used for many purposes such as competitive analysis table and product comparison table.
- Matrix PowerPoint Templates
Ansoff Matrix template for PowerPoint and BCG growth matrix are demanded by business professionals. Ansoff matrix outlines 4 strategies for product and market growth- market penetration, market development, product development, and diversification. The BCG matrix, also known as growth-share matrix and product portfolio matrix, helps businesses decide the future of their product portfolio - to discontinue products or invest further in some products.
- Process PowerPoint Templates
Process needs to be understood clearly by all team members for successful outcome. However, long text with descriptions are quickly forgotten. Use a visual process template to help audience visualize the series of steps to be followed. Be it a manufacturing process, product development process, new work process, a visual process slide gets imprinted in memory and guarantees greater retention and success.
- Case Study PowerPoint Templates
How did your business serve its clients? What were their particular challenges? How did you solve them? Help audience gain trust in your products and services by showcasing case studies. Create a good impression using a professional case study template.
- Technology PowerPoint Templates
Technology is ever changing. Technology is also one of the main drivers of business growth. Each company plans and invests in new technologies to provide better service and faster deliveries to its customers. The emergence of cloud computing, internet of things, futuristic technologies has increased the demand for technology PPT slides.
- Lists PowerPoint Templates
Just like maintaining to-do lists are a common practice, including list of items such as procurement list, or project list of tasks and lists of dos and don’ts are a common usage among presenters.
- Comparison PowerPoint Templates
Be it comparing the pros and cons of a product or service, comparing competitors on product features, pricing and benefits, demographic comparison, etc. a comparison diagram or comparison table is often requested. Ready-made comparison charts and diagrams make displaying information easier and more aesthetic.
- Balanced Scorecard PowerPoint Templates
Balanced scorecard is a strategic management system to help business strike a balance between short-term goals and long-term vision. It takes four different perspectives into picture- learning and growth, internal business processes, customer, and financial.
- Marketing Plan PowerPoint Templates
Marketing professionals demand a marketing plan template to give structure to their ideas. They also need a marketing plan template to inform the product manager their plan for promotion. The marketing plan usually includes the social media strategy, content marketing strategy, email marketing, paid organic search, advertising, public relations, and so on.
- Sales Plan PowerPoint Templates
Sales professionals also showcase their strategy to capture more sales and deals with a sales plan. Quarterly sales review presentations often require sales team to show how they plan to generate more leads, activities they will undertake to close more deals, sales campaign ideas, and so on.
- Operational Plan PowerPoint Templates
Operational plan templates help a team communicate how it is going to contribute to organization goals. It lists out the activities the department will take, people responsible for those activities, the time frame, and usage of resources to achieve them. It includes the day-to-day activities the department plans to undertake to achieve a goal.
- Sales Dashboard PowerPoint Templates
Summarize your key sales performance metrics with a Sales Dashboard PPT template. Highlight the total sales over the quarter, sales performance comparison over previous years, total deals won, average deal size, sales by country, and so on. Sales managers and sales professionals widely employ a sales dashboard template.
- Profit Loss Statement PowerPoint Templates
Profit loss statement, also known as income statement, shows the costs incurred and the sales revenue over a quarter or a financial year. It helps top management analyze whether the company is making profit or loss. Profit loss statement template is widely used by sales professionals and managers presenting annual reports.
- Cash-Flow Statement PowerPoint Templates
Cash-flow statement is one of the financial statements useful to analyse cash inflows and cash outflows. It is usually divided into three sections - cash flow from operations, cash flows from investing and cash flows from financing.
- Customer Service PowerPoint Templates
Customer service heads often need to deliver customer service presentations. The way salesperson and support staff deal with customers can make or break a business. Customer service templates help managers deliver effective trainings and improve the communication skills of customer care executives.
- 30-60-90-day plan PowerPoint Templates
Professionals are often looking for good 30-60-90-day plan templates to lay out their strategy for the first 90 days on the job. It helps them convince prospective employers that they are well suited for the job and will bring fruitful results for the new company.
- Annual Report PowerPoint Templates
Every manager needs to present an annual report presentation to the top management and shareholders to describe company’s performance over the financial year. An annual report PPT comprises description of company activities, financial statements such as income statement, cash flow statement and balance sheet as well as future targets.
- Quarterly Business Review PowerPoint Templates
Like annual report, Quarterly Business Review is performed in every organization by the sales team and management to review business performance. The presentation covers discussion on the overall revenue of the company revenue by country, revenue by product, win-loss review, sales pipeline review and sales forecast. QBR is also known as Quarterly Sales Review.
- Project Management Report PowerPoint Templates
Project managers often maintain a project management report to manage multiple projects simultaneously. A Project Management Report helps in smooth management of projects. The report covers progress on different projects, fixes responsibilities and deadlines for each task, outlines project work plan, and shows the project healthcard to see which issues need priority.
- Budget PowerPoint Templates
Finance presentations and annual reports requires a budget vs actual template to show the budget allocated and actual expenses. This also helps to forecast a budget for the next financial year.
- Product Launch PowerPoint Templates
Product launch is a culmination of several years of hard work. Idea, market research, pre-launch development, the actual launch, and post launch promotions. Here is a product launch slide to visually display all activities your team will undertake once the product is out in the market.
- Lead Generation PowerPoint Templates
Lead generation is an important part of inbound marketing strategy. Marketers use lead generation funnel template to visualize how they are going to convert a prospect into a customer. Lead generation involves attracting a stranger using marketing channels and then converting them into a potential lead using lead capture form. Visualize the lead generation process with a visual presentation template.
- Agile PowerPoint Templates
Agile is a software development framework or approach that focuses on continuous iterations in the product development. It is a more efficient and cost-effective way of delivering an end product to customers. At the end of each sprint or iteration, customers feedback is incorporated. This helps in building a stronger product that delivers expectations.
- Six Sigma PowerPoint Templates
Six Sigma is a statistical-based process improvement methodology that seeks to improve process output by eliminating defects and reducing process variability. Many companies follow the six-sigma methodology to reduce process cycle time, reduce factory defects and increase customer satisfaction.
- Training PowerPoint Templates
Training templates are demanded for delivering effective, visually engaging presentations. If you are training new sales reps about the product, you need to follow a step by step session starting with company description, product description, product timeline, product roadmap, competitive advantages, and so on.
- Executive Summary PowerPoint Templates
Executive summary appears in the beginning of a presentation but is created at last. It is a summary of the performance of the company over the year so that the top management can get a complete picture in one glance and without having to wait for the entire presentation to finish.
- Social Media PowerPoint Templates
Social media marketing is an integral part of the overall marketing strategy. Social media is a great tool to attract potential customers, interact with clients, resolve complaints, and increase brand awareness and retention.
- Risk PowerPoint Templates
Risk PowerPoint templates are popularly requested to highlight the business risks and strategies to overcome them. Risk diagram, risk matrix, risk management, etc. are common topics that need to be addressed by every company.
- Security PowerPoint Templates
Security PPT themes, security diagrams and security icons are often required to present on topics such as cybersecurity, financial security, house security, and so on. Visual slides create a better impact on the audience by reinforcing the message.
- Testimonials PowerPoint Templates
Present the positive feedback shared by your clients using testimonials templates. A testimonial slide is read by prospects and interested parties and motivates them to try out the company’s services.
- Quote PowerPoint Templates
Share words of wisdom by the experts in your industry using a quote template. Quotes are engaging and add credibility to a presentation. A quote has to be visually impressive so that it is remembered by the audience long after the presentation is over.
- Target PowerPoint Templates
Highlight your business and sales targets for the next quarter or year with target PPT template. The target slide is seen by the top management and must be clear and visually impressive.
- Bulb Innovation PowerPoint Templates
Inspire creativity in your team and encourage team to brainstorm for new ideas with innovation PowerPoint templates. Bulb is the most common visual metaphor for creative thinking. Chart out all ideas that come from group discussion with a bulb diagram.
- Magnifying Glass PowerPoint Templates
Bring the focus on any concept that you are discussing with a magnifying glass diagram. Whether you want to discuss market segmentation, target audience, a problem or risk, sales from a region, or anything you want to draw attention to, magnifying glass template is a useful layout to have in your presentation arsenal.
- Winners PowerPoint Templates
Celebrate the achievements of top performers in any competing event with winners PowerPoint template. Use a winner’s podium, trophies, medals and awards diagrams to congratulate the top three achievers. Be it an academic institution or a Fortune 500 company, the best performers need to be recognized and rewarded.
- Achievements PowerPoint Templates
Showcase the achievements of your company or team with an achievement PowerPoint template. Make a strong impression on the management and external audience by listing out the milestones achieved. It also inspires the team to work harder and achieve new milestones.
- Ladder to Success PowerPoint Templates
Be it career counselling, personal development, business expansion, start-up growth, success is the end goal of all. As such, success PowerPoint templates are in great demand. Show the ladder to success and steps needed to ensure victory in any endeavour with a convincing, professional slide layout.
- Certificate / Certification PowerPoint Templates
Create online certificates and print them out to provide certificates for distinction in some field. Certificate PowerPoint templates provide you a ready-made layout that you need to fill. No need to work with PowerPoint toolbars. Create a professional certificate slide in seconds.
- Computer PowerPoint Templates
Technology presentations require the use of a computer diagram. With the rise of responsive design, flat design of devices such as laptop, computer and mobile phone are in high demand. Concepts such as internet of things, internet security, input process output, online shopping, etc. can be depicted visually with the use of a flat computer template.
- Silhouettes PowerPoint Templates
Want to show a business team or professional without showing their faces? Silhouettes help you achieve that anonymity and yet represent important business concepts such as teamwork, business meeting, and so on.
- Venn Diagram PowerPoint Templates
Venn Diagrams are commonly used illustrations to show relationships among certain variables. A basic Venn diagram is a set of overlapping circles where each variable has at least something in common with another variable. Stacked Venn and linear Venn are other variations of Venn diagrams requested for classroom presentations as well as business presentations.
- Handshake PowerPoint Templates
Handshake is one of the most used business diagrams to show partnerships, deals, contract management, opportunity, and so on. A handshake template is a must have for business presenters.
- Calendar PowerPoint Templates
Calendars are needed in presentations to mark important days and events, track project completion, set deadlines for projects, event management, training schedules, and so on. Calendar 2018, Calendar 2019, Calendar 2020 and so on are popularly asked. Here’s a calendar 2019 template to help you prepare and schedule in advance:
- New Year PowerPoint Templates
New year presentations are a look back at the year gone by and promises that the new year brings. New year themes are used to give that celebration touch to presentations. Create a fun-filled new year slideshow or a new year greeting card with these themes.
- Religion PowerPoint Templates
Need to deliver a sermon? Or a talk on the history of religions? Use a religion theme or template that gives the peaceful, religious touch to your presentation.
- Christmas PowerPoint Templates
One of the most demanded templates during the Christmas season. Christmas templates give that celebration feel to the deck with Christmas tree decorations, Santa Claus, reindeer, snowman, etc. Promote Christmas offerings and create Christmas greeting cards with Christmas PPT templates.
- Brain PowerPoint Templates
Whether you need a brain for a science presentation or a brain vector to show mind maps and creativity in a business presentation, brain diagram serves many purposes.
- Network PowerPoint Templates
Show the connectivity between different elements or variables in a process with a network template. Showcase a technology network, supply chain network, or network of ideas with an editable network diagram.
Cloud PowerPoint Templates
With the rise of cloud computing, all information is stored in “the cloud”. Cloud computing templates help explain this technology to new users. Cloud computing system comprises three services: software as a service (SaaS)+, infrastructure as a service (IaaS), and platform as a service (PaaS). Explain the fundamentals of this technology with cloud diagrams.
Legos PowerPoint Templates
Show the building blocks of any process with lego templates. Lego diagrams are a creative visual design to describe stages of any activity or process.
Current State Future State PowerPoint Templates
Strategize your plan for the future by describing the current state and where you wish to reach in the future with a current state future state template.
Food PowerPoint Templates
Hospitality management presentations and presentations on cookery employ the use of food templates to sizzle up their slides and make for a delicious presentation.
Medical PowerPoint Templates
Medical professionals often demand medical templates on first aid, emergency and other concepts. Hospitals need medical PPT designs to showcase their services and create a professional deck.
Education PowerPoint Templates
Teachers and professors widely demand education themes and general education diagrams to create presentations for classroom. With the rise of flipped classroom, courses are created in PowerPoint which require the use of professional education diagrams.
Leadership PowerPoint Templates
Explaining the styles of leadership, theories of leadership, traits of an effective leader, etc. becomes easy with leadership PowerPoint templates.
Management PowerPoint Templates
Managers need to increase the productivity of their teams and manage multiple tasks at the same time. Management templates cover a wide range of topics such as time management, work productivity, management skills, and so on.
Big Data PowerPoint Templates
The explosion of social media, web transactions, images and media, email, and database has generated large volumes of data that is beyond the reach of commonly used hardware environments and software tools known as Big Data. Analysis of big data is critical as it holds user insights, user behavior that can be exploited for business growth. Big Data templates get you started on this topic.
Pillar PowerPoint Templates
Pillar PowerPoint templates can be used to describe the founding principles of any topic. Whether you want to explain pillars of management, pillars of risk management, pillars of accounting, advertising, pillars of business, etc., pillar diagram is the perfect visual for your slide.
Checklist PowerPoint Templates
Prioritize and manage tasks with to-do lists and checklist templates. A checklist template can be used for supply chain management to manage list of stocks available. Equipment checklist, maintenance checklist, event checklist…there are many benefits of maintaining a to-do list. Include a checklist template in your must have templates collection for ready use.
Tree PowerPoint Templates
Tree diagrams are used to show relationships among different variables and hierarchies. Since tree shows branches connected to each other, it can be used to show expansion strategies and different ideas related to a topic.
Thank You PowerPoint Templates
You end the presentation with a thank you note. This is a very important slide as all contact details such as email address, contact number, social media profile links are mentioned here. Thank you template helps you end the presentation on a professional note.
Most of these professional PowerPoint templates were a single slide. But you can now get ready-made complete PowerPoint presentations on any topic be it annual report, business planning presentation, sales PPT, and so on. Don’t believe us. Check out our collection of complete PowerPoint presentations on hundreds of topics: